Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB) deconstructed

Questions about the CIDB answered simply


We get questions every day about Tendering and the CIDB. I will do the best I can to try and answer some of them here for you in plain simple everyday language. Hopefully, keeping it simple.


What does the acronym ‘CIDB’ stand for?
– Construction Industry Development Board


What is the purpose of CIDB?

– The Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB) – a Schedule 3A public entity – was established by Act of Parliament to promote a regulatory and developmental framework that builds:

  • The construction delivery capability for South Africa’s social and economic growth.
  • A proudly South African construction industry that delivers to globally competitive standards.


What is the focus of the CIDB?

  • Sustainable growth, capacity development and empowerment
  • Improved industry performance and best practice
  • A transformed industry, underpinned by consistent and ethical procurement practices
  • Enhanced value to clients and society


Why aren’t all tenders listed on CIDB?

– Not all tenders require a CIDB rating.


Why did Leads 2 Business align the tender values on the website according to CIDB?

– CIDB value ratings are now familiar in the construction tender market and used as a benchmark.


Do I need to apply for CIDB rating?

– Of the Clients, Professionals, Contractors, Subcontractors or Suppliers, only Contractor & Subcontractor need apply.  All contractors seeking to participate in public sector infrastructure delivery must be registered on the CIDB Register of Contractors.









About Carmen Barends

Social Media adventurer exploring new frontiers and learning how to survive. Tongue in cheek and mischief are the order of any good day topped with a sprinkling of laughter.

Understanding Awards

Understanding Awards



The pendulum for researching tender awards swings from one extreme to the other. The only constant are the benefits. When researching tenders awards, you never know what you are going to get. It could be so simple and painless that you’re unsure if you’ve actually just worked on, confirmed and published a tender award. It could also be so teeth-gnashingly frustrating, that you would think you’d been charged with finding the Holy Grail. The cast of characters are vast and numerous, but tend to favour certain categories:


Quick and Painless: This category is populated by those that publish award information in the media (you would think that this is a given. But it’s not); who answer phones and are willing to answer questions; those who answer emails (regardless of the email content. Answer emails. That’s it). Basically, if you are willing to engage in a conversation and confirm or supply me with award information, this is your category. I thank you. My Department thanks you. Our subscribers thank you. Transparency in the tender process hard at work.


Not Quick and Definitely Not Painless: This category contains everyone else.


Every unanswered email, ever.


The “instant-hangup”. You know the one. You call, it rings, it’s picked up and then “Click”. A sub-category that involves me phoning back and remaining on hold indefinitely. This results in partial deafness in my right ear from listening to either a tinny Greenleaves on an endless loop or a wind instrument butchering of a ’80’s One Hit Wonder. I will turn that ringing phone into an instrument of torture until that Government employee crawls out from under their desk and answers the phone. Generally, this results in them realising that if they give me what I want; I will go away. Until next time. But let’s not burst their bubble.


The “Wrong Department”. I tend to end up at HR. Regardless of how I worded my request. When I’ve done the full circuit of synonyms for “tender” and am now on a first name basis with the woman in HR; I know it’s going to be a long day.


There’s the blatant “No”. I can respect these guys because at least they’re not wasting my time or theirs. But I do think “Dodgy” when this happens. Which I will concede is unfair. The construction industry is very competitive, and as we all know, information is very valuable. Not everyone likes their “business” to be spread all over the place. Of course not, why would any company in this day and age want other people (with money), to know about their services and how some people (also with money) trust them with it to do a job? Scandalous. Yes, I know. You main contractors and some consultants out there don’t want to be inundated with calls. I get it. I know. I sympathise. But I’m still going to call anyway. A sub-category of this group are the “No Internet presence” people. They don’t exist. At least not digitally anyways. They can not be found. It baffles me, how they do business at all?


The “Who are you and why do you want to know?” category can go either way. This category either just wants to be informed (I can admire this) or they are suspicious of us. I’m perfectly happy to explain myself and what L2B does, just short of submitting a DNA sample. This category is an opportunity as they either subscribe to us or give us the opportunity to explain that publishing their awarded company details on the L2B website, is the grownup version of “Na-na-nana-na!”.


The “Uber-suspicious” group is like trying to have a conversation with Gollum, protecting his Precious (insert bad Gollum impression here).

“Sir, I don’t want to take it from you. I just want to talk to you about it”

“Filthy Hobbitses!”

“Um… okay. You have a good day, sir”. I don’t really blame this guy. Tender awards sometimes happen when they are needed the most, and sometimes when they won’t help a damn.


Tender Awards are not boring, that’s for sure. And very emotional. Anything from surprise, joy and excitement to doubt, jealously and anger. And that’s just the researchers.


Construction isn’t my business; information is, so those of you out there:


Subbies, reach out and touch someone. In the non-lawsuit kind of way. And no one likes a Spammer. This isn’t about shot-gunning a kitchen and hoping a cake will fall out. Be selective. Be smart. Approach those that you know will use your product or service. Approach those that will know what you are talking about. Create relationships. Even if the answer is “No!” that’s still a conversation.


Contractors, do not ignore the subbies. New products, skills and services are being created every day. The construction industry, although very traditional and conservative, is also incredibly innovative. Broaden your supplier lists and don’t get held hostage by suppliers/ subbies who are unwilling or unable to adapt to the times. Give the new guys a chance to impress you. Those that can’t deliver won’t last long anyway. You were once new too. Help a brother/ sister out. Plus, a little healthy competition never hurt anyone


If you’ve been awarded a tender and you’re proud of this fact, and want to metaphorically thumb your nose at your competitors, please email with the details.

Your company is doing well, broadcast it.

Free advertising, people.

That stuff’s expensive.


About Claire Donaldson

I started working at Leads 2 Business in February 2005, and have served as Head of Department of Daily Tenders from 2007 until the present. I oversee both the Daily Tenders South Africa and Africa Departments.

Tender Documents to Help the Average Ant

Tender Documents to Help the Average Ant

Tender documents to help the Average Ant.

Every day, a small Ant arrives at work very early and starts work immediately. She produces a lot and she was happy.

The Chief, a Lion, was surprised to see that the ant was working without supervision. He thought if the Ant can produce so much without supervision, would she produce even more if she had a supervisor?

So he recruited a Cockroach who had extensive experience as a supervisor and who was famous for writing excellent reports.

The Cockroach’s first decision was to set up a clocking in attendance system. He also needed a secretary to help him write and type his reports and he recruited a Spider, who managed the archives and monitored all the phone calls. The Lion was delighted with the Cockroach’s reports and asked him to produce graphs to describe production rates and to analyse trends, so he could use them for presentations at board meetings.

So the Cockroach had to buy a new computer and a laser printer and recruited a Fly to manage the IT department.

The Ant, who had once been so productive, happy and relaxed, hated this new plethora of paperwork and meetings which used up most of her time.

The Lion came to the conclusion that it was time to nominate a person in charge of the department where the Ant worked.

The position was given to the Cicada, whose first decision was to buy a carpet and an ergonomic chair for his office. He also needed a personal assistant who he brought from his previous department, to help him prepare a “Work and Budget Control Strategic Optimisation Plan”.

The department where the Ant works is now a sad place, where nobody laughs anymore and everybody is upset. It was at this time the Cicada convinced the Lion Chief, of the absolute necessity to start a “Climactic Study of the Environment.”

Having reviewed the charges for running the Ant’s department, the Lion found out that the production was even less then before!

So he recruited the Owl, a prestigious and renowned consultant to carry out an audit and suggest solutions.

The Owl spent three months and came up with an enormous report and after several volumes it that concluded: “The department is overstaffed…”

Guess who the Lion fired first?

The Ant, of course, because she “ showed a lack of motivation and had a negative attitude.”

Adapted from: Aesop’s Fable/ CP’s Fables

Perhaps this story rings true for you and you are compelled on a daily basis to acquire and complete mountains of paperwork. Unfortunately we cannot change how many supervisors or departments you work within.

We are however hopeful that this secret repository of Tender documents will help you be more positive, effective and motivated in your workplace as well as keep you out of the line of fire from any Lions!

About Taryn Duckham

I am a lover of marketing, customer centricity and the art of influence. Being able to effect this through analysis, content and front end design is part of my work, my great love of creatively solving problems that reach across as many parts of Leads 2 Business as I can.

T is for Tender

"T" is for Tender


There is much excitement when a Project Status moves into Tender Stage. This means the project is going out to tender – tender for construction! Whoop whoop! Things are happening, construction is going to commence shortly. If, however, the Project goes out to tender for the professionals the Project Status will remain in Procedural stage as this is a tender for professional services to conduct feasibility studies, EIA studies etc.

But, back to the tender for construction. This could be an invited tender and this is limited to preferred contractors only who are invited by the developer to tender on the contract. These tenders are very hard to obtain information about as they are, well, invited. “Invited” also translates as code for “big secret, don’t tell anybody anything!”

Open/public Tenders are published in newspapers and the media and these are open to general contractors who may only be limited by their CIDB grading. With publishing of the Tender notices comes site inspection dates (which are generally compulsory) and site attendance registers. The Tender closing date is perhaps the second most important date after the site attendance date. The Tender notices (DTA) that are listed on the Projects include a hyperlink which links the Project and Tender. Once the Tender has closed and the bids are in, bidders lists are then requested and if successfully obtained, the bidders list is attached to the DTA and the Project as a document.

On average, it takes about 3 – 4 months for Tenders to be awarded, (but it can take longer. Much longer in Africa). Once 3 months have passed, it is time to follow up on the Tenders and see if any awards have been made and this is when the fun begins.

It involves phoning the contact(s) listed on the Tender, usually in the Procurement Department and hoping they are willing to release details of the awarded company. When phoning African countries, this could involve many calls and being transferred to several different people and then finally being told…. “No, you cannot have the award details”. So, I wait (after all, “good things come to those who wait”) and try again in another couple of weeks or months depending on the forcefulness of the ‘No’. Sometimes, I get lucky and if the Project is big enough to warrant media attention, and an article appears in a local newspaper giving details of the awarded company I am able to update the award details on our database.  Alternatively, more phone calls and emails, until eventually (sometimes only once construction has commenced) a kind person will relent and give me the award information. Other times, sadly I am not so lucky……

But I digress …… back to getting the award information….

When obtaining the award information, it is important to get the spelling of the awarded company’s name correct, usually using the NATO phonetic spelling which is: Alpha for A, Bravo for B, C for Charlie etc. However, it appears that not everyone is able to recall this list when it comes to spelling and in Africa there appears to be many variations to this list, including the use of animal names – and I have had some more unusual phonetic names, including “J” …. for Giraffe and “A” for ….Umbrella!! Really!?!

T is for Tenacious, E is for Excellent, N is for Never giving up, D is for Diligent, E is for Enduring and R is for Relentless: T E N D E R




About Marlaine Andersen

Leads 2 Business Advertising Co-ordinator and Digital Designer

Is there Value in attending Tendering Workshops?

Is there Value in attending Tendering Workshops?

The question raised is similar to that for all other types of training where prospects question the wisdom of attending workshops. Depending on who’s answering the question, that in itself is a debatable one. If I were to be the one asking this question I would look for the following background checks on those offering the training.

Firstly, you have to look at the facilitators’ track record and here we are not referring to academic qualifications but for how many years has the person been presenting on the aspects of tendering. Secondly, you would have to request a Course Outline to determine as to whether the topics covered will indeed be in line with your expectations and thirdly, to check what kind of feedback past delegates’ are giving on the facilitators ability to bring the subject matter across in a manner that made them “happy”. I would say, that once you’ve ticked off all the boxes, then we are halfway there in answering the above question.

In essence it now becomes an issue as to what one should expect of such a workshop or training seminar. In the main, the facilitator has to cover the key legal aspects around the subject of tendering as well as bringing in other enabling legislation since the topic of tendering in itself is not a stand-alone issue. Depending on who one tenders for i.e. local, provincial or national government, parastatals or state owned enterprises, you need to be made aware by the facilitator that the applicable tendering-legislation has relevance to all these different spheres of government. Further, the facilitator needs to explain the different and various “stumbling blocks” found within the broader scope of the tendering process.

Primarily, those tendering for government contracts are challenged with submitting compliant bids since only those bids that are considered to be compliant will “graduate” to the short-list from which they will choose the successful bidder. The facilitator will also have to cover the aspects of the different committees systems, their structure, role and functions as well as how tenders are scored through the different point systems. Issues like the key pillars of tendering; BBBEE and sub-contracting, firm and non-firm pricing must also be covered in explaining the over-arching process of tendering.

Completing tender documents are not really open to varied interpretation since each bid document must consist of most of the 9 prescribed forms or returnables as issued by the national treasury. One of the areas that must be covered is the “declaration of interests” since delegates must be advised that by getting things wrong on this form could have serious legal repercussions such as being accused of what I call “inadvertent fraudulent declarations”. Also, the aspects of when to submit fixed prices and non-fixed prices coupled with the limitations on sub-contracting and the general conditions of contract, are also key issues to be dealt with in the workshop.

Overall, if you are happy that these key points will be covered in the workshop, then the answer to the above question should be in the “affirmative”

Gerrit is the Lead-Advisor at Taranisco Advisory CC and is contactable at or

About Gerrit Davids

Gerrit Davids is the Lead Advisor at Taranis Co Advisory with more than 20 years experience in government procurement regulations and having trained more than 2000 people on how to submit compliant tenders.

Why are Professionals reluctant to hand out a BoQ?

Why are Professionals reluctant to hand out a BoQ?


Disclaimer: Please take note that this is my opinion and none of the comments below are intended to cause offence and do not point to any professional in particular.


Ok, as someone (who is not a contractor / tenderer / sub-contractor / vendor etc.) who has to obtain electronic bills of quantities from professionals, I have to state unequivocally, that I do not understand why all bills of quantities are not available in an electronic format. I understand that those electronic bills may only be available to the contractors who are tendering on the contract, but I believe there should still be electronic bills.


Some of the reasons we are given are:

1. Client does not want the electronic bill released.

2. Bill is only released to the tenderers who have purchased the tender document and attended the site inspection.

3. Bill is only released to everyone who attended the site inspection.

4. There are no electronic bills.

5. The consultant does not want his format available for anyone to copy.

6. There are some people who will try to tender on the contract without having purchased the tender documents.


My thoughts on these reasons are:

1. Why not? Does the client not realise that the electronic format is easier for redistribution to vendors, suppliers and sub-contractors? It is easier to re-incorporate the prices that are received back and makes it easier to compile prices. If it is easier for the contractor (and by extension, the vendors, suppliers and sub-contractors) to gather the prices, make sense of them and fill in the tender document, then it is probably going to mean that the client will receive better bids.

2. I have no problem with this reason, but in favour of making it easier for us to obtain the electronic bill, it would be great if you would provide us with the name of the person you sent it to at the specific contracting company, so that we can advise our contact at that company, who they need to contact in order for them to provide us with the electronic bill.

3. Please see point 2 above.

4. This is rather difficult to believe as there are various programs (WinQS, Bill, CCS, excel, etc.) which are available for use. Adobe is also used and although not optimal, it is definitely preferred over a scanned file any day.

5. Sorry to say, but most bills are in the same format already, irrespective of who the consultant was that drew it up.

6. So what? If they hand in an electronic copy of the bill or even, a printed out version of the bill, so what? The tender state clearly that only the filled in ORIGINAL tender documents will be accepted as a valid bid. Therefore, any and all bids submitted that are not filled in original tender documents should be void and it shouldn’t affect any of the other tenderers submissions.


In conclusion, the reasons we are requesting an electronic bill of quantities are:


A. Our subscribers (contractors), who are tendering on this contract (therefore they will purchase the tender documents and attend the site inspection), would like us to upload the bill on our Electronic Pricing System so that they can send it out to their suppliers / vendors / sub-contractors.

B. A vendor / supplier / subcontractor is interested in seeing if anything is on the bill that they supply or do, so that they can supply the contractors who are tendering on this project with prices (this is usually helped by an accompanying site register, so that they know who to submit their prices to…hint hint)


This should be a win-win situation for everyone concerned, so please, please be nice and provide electronic BoQ’s (even if it is just to the contractors:)).



About Cecile Van Deventer

I joined the L2Q Team in 2006, as a L2Q Support Assistant and have been the HOD since 2010. I supervise L2Q Bills, Daily Tender Bills, Control Lists and Directory.

Evolution of a Project

Evolution of a Construction Project

How Project stages are broken down.


Over the eight plus years I have worked at L2B I have spoken to many  people who have wanted me to explain,


“Where do I ‘fit’ into a Project?”


i.e. where would my point of benefit be? How does Leads 2 Business classify Project stages? It makes sense to me that someone would want to know how it works because it helps them find their place in the puzzle.


As an introduction, our Projects Department are a wonderful bunch. Generally, if you need anything, the Projects Department is the place you would find it. Often referred to as the ‘crystal ball’ department, they seem to have a knack for sourcing information where others may fail.  This occasionally results in a couple of laughs, but has also included interesting incidents such as receiving phonecalls from subscribers wanting to know which direction the wind is blowing on site in Burkino Faso (which incidentally was sourced and sent to the subscriber).  Simply put, they move mountains to get what is needed. But I digress…

A Project is divided up into different stages where different Companies would get involved. These are broken down on the Leads 2 Business system as follows:


Conceptual Phase

Very early stage in the Project :–  This involves the Clients intention, Developers Prosposals, the Feasibility study and Anchor tenants express interest.


Procedural Phase

EIA Consultant is appointed :– This encompasses the basic design, EIA process, Geotechnical study, rezoning, licensing, invited list, Expression Of Interest  and Professionals appointment.


Design Phase

This involves the detailed design of the project including the Bill of Quantities.


Tender Phase

This involves the project going out to Tender, whether public, private and the negotiations involved.


Awarded Phase

The Main Contractor, Subcontractors and Suppliers are awarded.  There is potential that there is a delay between the award and the commencement of the project.


Underway Phase

The Main Contractor is on site and Construction is underway.


Complete Phase

The Project has reached completion.


So now the picture becomes a little clearer. You can see who is involved in the different stages and plan how you would like to contact them and when to market your services or products.   For a more detailed description of where the different fields are involved and where your points of benefit are you can click here.
Feel free to contact us should you have any questions.  We are happy to answer them and to assist.  You can mail or call 086 083 6337.





About Carmen Barends

Social Media adventurer exploring new frontiers and learning how to survive. Tongue in cheek and mischief are the order of any good day topped with a sprinkling of laughter.

Nightmare on Tender Street

Bills of Quantity (BOQ) Monsters


A story of how bidding used to work


Early Monday morning I walk into my office. On my desk are three bound documents, I shake my head in disbelief. Right on cue, my boss walks in the door. I point at the documents and ask: “I wasn’t aware of any other tenders for this month?” He replies: “We received them Saturday morning, they close in a week, 9 days and 14 days respectively, I want the prices back for all three in four days’ time.” He walks into his office and closes the door. I am left alone by my desk, feeling like I am about to be suffocated.


Four days! Only four days! Do I look like a miracle worker?!


I shake my head, roll my shoulders and try to calm down. There is no time for histrionics right now, I have to get these tenders out and priced back to my boss in four days. First thing I do is look at the tenders to ascertain the areas where the work will take place. Ok, two of them I can send to the same vendors for prices as they are in close proximity, this will cut my work by a third. Feeling a little bit better, I start typing up the cover letters for each tender. Once complete and printed, I take the first tender document and remove the fasteners holding the tender document together (luckily the two tenders that are close together, I can unbind. Unfortunately, the last tender I will have to copy each page of the bill and they will probably have that blinking black line obscuring the item numbers. Ugh!). I start sorting the pages of the bill into the different trades I need to send to; of course some of the pages will be required for different trades as well. I then grab our vendor list and start looking for vendors in the required area. Once I have compiled the necessary list of every vendor I will be sending to, I realise that due to the project being rural, I am going to have to fax almost every vendor, as there is only one that has an email address. Great! Just great!


I look at the clock; it is 11:10 am. There is enough time to at least fax a few before I am supposed to go to lunch, although it looked like it was going to be a sandwich eaten on the go. With a heavy sigh, I pick up the different piles and trudge over to the fax machine. The light blinks, indicating that I need to replace the ink cartridge, I grunt. Now, I have to go find a replacement cartridge, as the stupid fax won’t work until I have replaced the cartridge. Some days, I really hate my job! I open the supply cabinet, rummage through the piles and finally spot the cartridge right in the back. I cut open the package and cross back to the fax, trying to remember the steps in replacing the cartridge, wishing for the millionth time that we could get an upgraded fax/printer machine. I finally wrangle the old cartridge out and insert the new one. Ok, time to fax. I grab the first pile, position the papers and pick up my list of vendors; I enter the first number and press send. The first two pages go through with no issue, the third page never emerges and the fax starts emitting a high pitched shriek, with lights flashing. Page jam, fantastic. I open the machine compartment, do a scan of the areas where the paper can be stuck and see at least three pages in different locations. I grab the first one and pull it out quite smoothly, the second one I can’t get hold, so I take a pair of tweezers from my handbag and finally manage to get it out. I reach for the third one, manage a good grip and start pulling, it won’t budge. Grimacing, I reset my foot, take the page in a two-handed grip and yank with all my might.


Chaos erupts! It’s like the machine is possessed. It’s spewing paper everywhere and then a black rain joins in coating everything in ink, including me. I try to fight my way to the machine, guarding my face with my hands, finally getting to the power cord and reach to push the power button…I wake up in a cold sweat, bolting upright, gasping for breath. I shakily reach up to push my hair off my sweating face. It’s only a nightmare, it’s not real. I exhale and feeling calm again, turn onto my side and close my eyes. Thank goodness I subscribe to Leads 2 Quotes.

About Cecile Van Deventer

I joined the L2Q Team in 2006, as a L2Q Support Assistant and have been the HOD since 2010. I supervise L2Q Bills, Daily Tender Bills, Control Lists and Directory.

How does early project development benefit me and my company?

Early Private Project Construction Benefits


I have to revert back to the dictionary again and break that heading down, just the keywords, those are the important ones:

  • Early: says “in or during the first part of a period of time, a course of action, a series of events”,
  • Benefit and its definition is: “Something that promotes or enhances well-being; an advantage”.


So, I could change the heading to: How does a course of action involving developments promote myself and my company? Conceptual is the earliest stage that we add new projects, normally this entails various studies that still need to be done, business plans, feasibility studies etc. This is an opportunity for everyone, might be a little early for the contractor to start sharpening his tools but he will know about this development and can follow the progress through the early stages while waiting to pounce when it’s his turn but if your forte is turning an idea into a viable business plan, this could be your moment. Procedural is still pretty early and here is when environmental studies will be done. There is a strong possibility that a professional team has not been appointed yet and this is where the Project Managers, Developers, Engineers, Quantity Surveyors and Architects can ply their trade and promote themselves as to why they would be the best person for the job. Design is a little later but still early enough in the game and perhaps the rest the professional team is still being sourced….this is your cue, call the contact that is listed on the project and promote you and your company should your profession not be listed. Today could be your day. We let you know about the opportunity as early as possible and being proactive you would use the opportunity to benefit you and your company.


For more information on Leads 2 Business, please visit

About Debbie Wessels

I started at Leads 2 Business in April 2008 in the tenders Department and transferred to the Projects Department during the same year. I was appointed Head of Department for Projects from February 2011 to March 2022. April 2022 I started a new adventure as Content Regulator.

What is the difference between a Tender and a Project?

What is the Difference between a Tender & a Project?

This is one of the most asked questions that I have received over the years. What is the difference between a Tender and a Project?  So I thought I would break it down as best as I understand it.

A Tender is is put out for supply of services or products where various entities can bid to be awarded the contract. This is one phase in a Project life cycle and generally happens over a short period of time e.g. two to three weeks.

A Project is the full life cycle from Conceptual stage to Completion/Postponement/Cancellation.

The stages of a project could be broken up as follows:

Conceptual stage is the beginning phase of the project.

Client / Developer – Feasibility Process – Securing Funding – Request for Proposal – Procedural stage involves obtaining various approvals and authorisations. Basic Design – Geotechnical Study – Licensing – EIA Process – Property Rezoning – Professionals.

Design & Tender

This stage involves detailed design, the tender process and bill pricing. The majority of the Project Professionals have been appointed at this stage. Bidding Contractors’ details are listed under Bidders. Detailed Design – Expression of Interest – Negotiation – Tender – Anchor Tenant – Invited List.

Awarded & Underway

The main contractor and subcontractors have been awarded and construction is underway.


Practical completion is nearing the end or is structurally complete. The project is on hold for various reasons.
All this information is captured on our system in an accessible manner for our subscribers so they can keep up to date and put their business’s in the right position to take advantage of the opportunities that exist.

This is a very basic explanation, I know.  If you want to add to it, please feel  free to provide feedback for those reading.


About Carmen Barends

Social Media adventurer exploring new frontiers and learning how to survive. Tongue in cheek and mischief are the order of any good day topped with a sprinkling of laughter.

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