Weird & Wacky Road Signs

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What would we do without road signs? I would get lost, very lost (although I have managed to do that even with road signs helping me along), who actually thinks about road signs? They are just an accepted norm, you drive along, you look for the sign that indicates how fast you allowed to go, you approaching a town…..where are we? Need to take the next turn after the white house, next to the elephant waterhole by the spaza shop….you look for a road sign as confirmation that you are heading in the right direction. Who invented them? What purpose do they serve (besides the obvious)?

According to most accounts available, the Romans were the first to invent road signs which were milestones, and they were used by ancient Romans in the Bronze Age. The very first road in Rome was the Via Appia, or also known as the Appian Way. This road was built in 312 B.C. At regular road intervals, milestones were placed, and these often stated who was in charge of the maintenance of that road portion and as well as the completed repairs. The Romans also built mile markers at intersections to specify the distance to Rome. I wonder if that is the origin of the saying….” all roads lead to Rome”?

The first modern road signs erected on a wide scale were designed for riders of high or “ordinary” bicycles in the late 1870s and early 1880s. Cycling organisations began to put up signs that warned of potential hazards ahead (particularly steep hills), rather than merely giving distance or directions to places, thereby contributing the sign type that defines “modern” traffic signs. In 1686, the first known Traffic Regulation Act in Europe was established by King Peter II of Portugal. This act ensures the placement of priority signs in the narrowest streets of Lisbon, stating which traffic should back up to give way. One of these signs still exists at Salvador street, in the neighbourhood of Alfama.

Eventually, with traffic on the roads increasing all the time, some form of standardisation regarding road signs was needed and after some debate, it was agreed on some distinct shapes to be used for various situations. The shapes were as follows:
Round: Railroad crossing warning
Octagon: To stop
Diamond: To show that precautions need to be taken in a specific area
Square: To show some care needs to be taken occasionally
Rectangular: For directional or regulation information
Star-Shaped: A unique shape used to mark highways
In Britain, before the 1950s, road signs were a disaster. It took graphic designers Jock Kinneir and Margaret Calvert to create standard and easy-to-read road signs. After testing different versions, they created new signs based on the European standard that triangular signs warn, circles command and rectangles provide information. They used drawings or pictograms more than words as a picture can convey a message a lot quicker than words. These pictograms have resulted in some hilarious road signs.

Turning left is usually a straightforward affair, but not at this intersection. You’ll first need to turn right and then go left. But be careful not to get confused, as you shouldn’t block the intersection, either.

Photo by Flickr user Paul Heaberlin

This sign is probably warning motorcyclists about an upcoming downhill turn, but it really just looks like a kid showing off on a rainbow.

Defensive Driving

 

Buzz Nicked

I had the opportunity to visit the beautiful country Namibia a few years ago and the images below are some of the pictograms we photographed:

Sources:
Did you Know Cars
Degemill
Wikipedia


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About Debbie Wessels

Juggling a energetic, full of surprises life, working full time with two teenagers and hoping to still be sane and normal by the time I retire.

Featured Tender: Warden SAPS

Featured Tender: Warden – Free State

Contract Number:

BL20/030 – Department of Public Works

Description:

National Department of Public Works Bloemfontein invites tenders for Warden SAPS: Repair and Maintenance to Electrical, Structural and Civil Elements to the Station and Detective Office.

Category Industry
Infrastructure, Building, Electrical & Instrument Institutional, Renovations
Region Site Inspection
Warden No Details
Closing Date Contract Period
15 December 2020 at 11:00 No details.

 


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About Antonette Claassens

I am a fanatical researcher who takes immense pride in the information I publish and those all-important finer details. When I'm not "researching up a storm", I love the ocean, fab music, and fine dining.

Featured Company: Afrimat Contracting International

This week we are featuring Afrimat Contracting International. Read more here:

Afrimat Contracting Int

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About Shanna Knezovich

I started my journey with Leads 2 Business in 2013 as an Account Co-Ordinator. I transitioned into an External Sales position as an Account Executive in 2015. I help professionals within the building & construction industry keep up to date with the latest project and tender information as well as source new business opportunities throughout Africa.

Featured Project: Witherow Dam – Golden Glades

Bloemfontein

Description
Golden Glades is the first phase of the new development of Witherow dam in Bloemfontein. The estate is comprised of a mixture of free standing houses and apartments. Golden Glades comprises of 146 freestanding homes and 134 apartments. All residential buildings within the estate will be built along the Tuscan design,

 

Status Region
Design Bloemfontein
Category Value
Building R 100 million+
Industry Timing
Residential 2020 onwards
Sector Class
Private Invited / Negotiated / Turnkey


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About Melanie Miles

One girl who would rather wear boots than high heels...

5 Historical Buildings in Bloemfontein

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To the seasoned traveller, Bloemfontein holds a whole array of history and exciting facts. Being known as “The City of Roses” attests to the beauty the city holds as well as holding a little fame for being the birthplace of J.R.R. Tolkien, the author of The Lord of the Rings Trilogy and The Hobbit. But to the unseasoned traveller, little may be known about this city except perhaps that it is the Capital of the Free State and that it borders on the semi-arid region of the Karoo. If you’re looking for some historical insight and a city that will not disappoint, Bloemfontein is not to be missed on your next road trip. Listed below are 5 historical buildings that are an absolute must on your next South African adventure!

1. Supreme Court of Appeal

Bloemfontein is the judicial capital of South Africa. The Court of Appeal building was built in 1929 and is the highest court. The Court of Appeal is also known as the Supreme Court of Appeal where the final decisions are made. Except for the Constitutional Court, no other court rules over it.
The original building was designed in a free Renaissance style by J S Cleland, the Chief Government Architect, who was also responsible for many other major public buildings in South Africa. The oldest part was built with sandstone from Ladybrand, the newer western wing with sandstone from Ficksburg, and the latest extension with sandstone from Mookgophong in Limpopo. On each occasion, the extensions were constructed to preserve the style and appearance of the building as far as possible.

2. National Afrikaans Literary Museum

The National Afrikaans Literary Museum and Research Centre is a central archive for material and information on the history, development, and scope of literature, music, and drama in the Afrikaans language. The NALN was founded in 1973 by the Free State provincial government and is based in Bloemfontein, South Africa. NALN is located in the Old Free State Government Building. The building housed the various government departments of the Orange Free State government. The first story’s front facade was designed by Richard Wocke and the keystone was laid by President Brand on May 31, 1875. In 1895, the second story was built, designed by Johannes Egbertus Vixseboxse. The remainder of the building was designed by Sir Herbert Baker, an architect of the Union Buildings in Pretoria, and was completed in 1906.
On October 28, 1908, the original building was destroyed in a fire. From 1909 to 1911, it was largely restored based on Baker’s blueprint. Improvements were the work of the government architect F. Taylor. The tower was, among other things, narrower and 10.5 m higher than the original one, and was fitted with a rounded crown.
From 1877 to 1902, the Old Government Building was the headquarters of the Government of the Orange Free State. The Free State Volksraad met in the Third Council Chamber from 1877 to 1893. Afterwards, it remained the seat of the Government of the Orange River Colony, and in 1911 became the provincial headquarters of the Orange Free State. In 1972, the building was declared a national heritage site.
The Human Sciences Research Council began mounting exhibits in the building and using it as an archive for documents on language and literature in 1970. The document archive developed into the Literary Museum of Bloemfontein. On October 9, 1972, the Administrator of Free State, announced the establishment of the NALN. On March 24, 1973, the NALN was officially opened by Johannes Petrus van der Spuy, at the time Minister of National Education.

3. City Hall

Bloemfontein City Hall is a building in Bloemfontein which houses the local city council. The building was completed in 1936 and burned by vandals in 2017. The building lies on President Brand Street downtown next to the Supreme Court of Appeal of South Africa and facing Hertzog Square. The building is a sandstone structure designed by Gordon Leith. The city hall has a large room, the council meeting room, behind its eastern entrance. The entrance on President Brand Street is designed symmetrically with two towers. Pillars give the east entrance neoclassical elements. Over the symmetrical entrance hang signs indicating Stadhuis and City Hall. Above these lie the former city coat of arms.
During the 1980s, new municipal offices were opened alongside the building. Even after municipal government changes in 2000 and its 2011 reclassification, the local government has continued to use the town hall.
On June 21, 2017, vandals set the building on fire. The fire was lit during a protest by the South African Municipal Workers’ Union held at the building earlier during the day. The municipal archives in the building were lost in the fire.

4. Twin-Spire Church

Established on 13 November 1848, The Dutch Reformed congregation, also known as the Tweetoring Kerk, held its services initially in the Raadsaal, a humble thatched building in St George’s Street. On 6 January 1849 Major Henry Warden, the British Resident Administrator, laid the foundation stone for a new church and, at the same time, presented a bell to the congregation.
The building was only completed on 29 May 1852. By 1862, it had grown too small for Bloemfontein’s needs and the construction of a new hall was proposed. The project was only undertaken in 1874 when architect AW Wocker was commissioned to design a church. The old building was demolished whilst services continued to be held in a warehouse, owned by the firm of GA Fitchardt, immediately across the road.
President Brand laid the foundation stone for the new church on 10 May 1878, and on 7 May 1880, the new building was consecrated. The structure was notable for its twin spires and is commonly known amongst citizens of Bloemfontein as the Tweetoring Kerk. Unfortunately in April 1935 the western spire, including its clock, collapsed. Following fears that the second spire could also fall, both towers were shortened at the height of the church roof and given shorter pointed steeples. Following extensive structural restoration, by the end of 1942, both spires had been restored to their former height. A subsequent fire in 1952, set by an arsonist, fortunately, caused little structural damage, and the building was declared a National Monument under old NMC legislation on 15 February 1963.

5. The Fourth Raadsaal

The Fourth Raadsaal is a historic building in Bloemfontein, South Africa, which serves as the meeting place of the Free State Provincial Legislature, the legislature of the Free State. It is located opposite the Supreme Court of Appeal in President Brand Street. In the early 1880s, it was resolved to build a new presidency office and chamber council. The designs for both buildings were awarded to Johannesburg-based Lennox Canning. The new presidency office was completed in 1886, yet work on the chamber council had not begun until 1889 by another Johannesburg-based architect, TR Robertson. President Francis William Reitz laid the foundation stone on 27 June 1890. Due to construction issues, another tender was awarded to JJ Kirkness. The new building was formally inaugurated on 5 June 1893 when the members walked from the old chamber to the new one.
In March 1900, British forces occupied Bloemfontein and the building became a military hospital. Most of the furnishing were acquired and are now in private homes. The Orange River Colony became the legitimate government in 1907. The colony had a two-chamber legislature consisting of a council and a legislative assembly. The lower council continued to meet in the Raadsaal, while a separate building facing Aliwal Street housed the upper house. In 1910, the Union of South Africa was formed and the Raadsaal housed the provincial council. The chamber and its rooms were occupied by the Appeal Court until its own premises was ultimately built in 1929. After the first non-racial elections in 1994, a decision was taken to house the newly-established provincial legislature in the building.

As one can see, just from the 5 historical buildings mentioned here, Bloemfontein is a city teeming with culture and is immensely rich in heritage. The buildings and museums reflect a historical journey and make Bloemfontein one of the most important cities to visit in the history of South Africa.


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Infographic: Why you need to subscribe to Tenders

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About Marlaine Andersen

I have been working for Leads 2 Business, in the Private Projects Department, for 10 years this July. I am Deputy HoD for Private Projects. Researching mining projects and projects through-out the African continent are my areas of research and I find them most interesting.

Featured Tender: Provision of Consulting Engineering Services

Featured Tender: Northern Cape

Contract Number:

N.008-080-2020/2F – The South African National Roads Agency Limited

Description:

Tender are invited to bid on the provision of Consulting Engineering Services for the Periodic Maintenance of National Route 8 Section 8 between Sinovel (km 20.0) and Zandplaats (km 40.0). This project is in the province of Northern Cape and in the district municipality/local municipality of Sol Plaatje and the approximate programme is for design and construction documentation to be completed by April 2021 followed by supervision of 8 months, commencing 1 September 2021.

Category Industry
Consultants Institutional, Road
Region Site Inspection
Northern Cape Briefing Session: There is no clarification meeting for this tender. A tenderer’s clarification presentation is available to be downloaded from the SANRAL website by the following link: https://www.nra.co.za/service-provider-zone/tenders/open-tenders/.Site Meeting(s): Not applicable.
Closing Date Contract Period
04 December 2020 at 11:00 No details.

 


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About Antonette Claassens

I am a fanatical researcher who takes immense pride in the information I publish and those all-important finer details. When I'm not "researching up a storm", I love the ocean, fab music, and fine dining.

Renewable Energy in SA

What is Renewable Energy?

Renewable energy is the energy that is collected from renewable resources, which are naturally replenished on a human timescale, such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat.

Not only does renewable energy reduce carbon emissions, but the infrastructure can be built quickly to match the country’s need for electricity. Some renewables already supply cheaper electricity than the newest coal power plants. Renewables will get cheaper and coal and nuclear likely more expensive.

The energy sector in South Africa is an important component of global energy regimes due to the country’s innovation and advances in renewable energy.

Of all South African renewable energy sources, solar holds the most potential. Because of the country’s geographic location, it receives large amounts of solar energy. Wind energy is also a major potential source of renewable energy. Investment in renewable energy in SA can provide decent jobs and increase skills. SA is a solar-rich country with one of the highest solar resources in the world.

South Africa is taking the lead in Africa which gives us the opportunity to become a key global player in this growing industry thus investment in renewable energy in SA can provide decent jobs and increase skills.

Here are just a few of the Renewable Energy Projects that we currently have on our Leads 2 Business website

PPA 26177 – Vortum Solar Park
PPA 26040 – Zoute Kloof Solar Farm
PPA 14457 – Kangnas Wind Energy Facility

Get in the know with these renewable energy projects and more by subscribing to our platform, please feel free to contact me on SharikaR@l2b.co.za to receive daily project leads and updates.

Sources:
Wikipedia
Engerati
Civiconcepts

 


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About Sharika Raman

I have worked for Leads 2 Business from January 2015 till present. I work for the Leads 2 Quotes Department for Directory and Control List.

Tunnel Boring Machines

Tunnel Boring Machines (TBM)

A tunnel boring machine (TBM), also known as a “mole”, is a very large machine designed to excavate and drill with a circular cross-section, through a variety of soils and rock to create a tunnel.
Tunnel boring machines are used as an alternative to drilling and blasting methods in rock and conventional “hand mining” in soil. TBMs have the advantages of limiting the disturbance to the surrounding ground and producing a smooth tunnel wall. This significantly reduces the cost of lining the tunnel and makes them suitable to use in heavily urbanized areas. The major disadvantage is the upfront cost. TBMs are expensive to construct and can be difficult to transport, due to their very large size.
The first tunnelling machine was designed by an Engineer, Marc Brunel in the 19th century. It was used to help build the Thames tunnel in 1843 – the first tunnel under a river. Brunel’s invention was basically just an iron framework with spaces for workmen to stand-in. Tunnellers dug out the earth in front of them with pickaxes and shovels.
According to global tunnelling tradition, a TBM cannot start work until it is given a name. This tradition also sees most TBMs being named after women. Why are they given women’s names? Apparently, it’s a tradition dating back to the 1500s when miners and anyone working underground with explosives prayed to Saint Barbara to protect them from the dangers underground.
Phyllis, Ada, Elizabeth, Victoria, Jessica, Ellie, Sophia and Mary were the names of the eight tunnel boring machines used in London’s mega Cross-rail Project. Big Bertha is the infamous TBM stuck underneath Seattle and Alice tunnelled Vancouver’s new Evergreen Line.
Here in South Africa, the R300 million TMB used to construct the 3-kilometre tunnel stretching from Rosebank Station to Park Station as part of the Gautrain project in Gauteng was named ‘Imbokodo’, or ‘hard rock’. The name, ‘Imbokodo’, flows from the women’s protest march to the Union Buildings on August 9, 1956. This march saw the birth of the phrase ‘wathinta abafazi, wathinta imbokodo’ or, ‘if you strike a woman, you strike a rock’. Project officials chose the name because they believed the TBM would do her work with the “agility and effect of a super kung fu master, yet with a feminine touch of tenderness and softness as she tunnels her way through soft ground and hard rock”.

The world’s largest hard rock TBM is known as Martina, (she has an excavation diameter of 15.62m, a total length of 130m and a total weight of 4,500 tons. It was built by Herrenknecht AG, and is owned and operated an Italian construction company, Toto S.p.A. Costruzioni Generali (Toto Group) and was used for the tunnelling of the Sparvo gallery of the Italian Motorway Pass A1 near Florence in Italy.
Tunnelling machines have had an economic, environmental and cultural effect around the world. Like bridges, tunnels connecting communities, and sometimes even entire nations!
In the UK for example, modern TBMs have helped boost the economy. London Underground’s Jubilee line tunnel has brought redevelopment all along the new line.
TBMs can also be used to improve the environment. The machines that dug the Lee and Thames Tideway tunnels helped improve sewage treatment for large areas of London.
Today’s modern tunnelling machines look very different from Marc Brunel’s miner’s cage, but their function is very similar. The TBMs dig out earth which is carried back behind it – usually on a conveyor belt. The TBM moves forward and continues to dig.

Showing a TBM in action, underground

“Like giant underground factories on rails, they’re the equivalent of 14 London buses end-to-end and a staggering 143 buses in weight”

 

Sources:
Mining
Engineering News
ICE


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About Marlaine Andersen

I have been working for Leads 2 Business, in the Private Projects Department, for 10 years this July. I am Deputy HoD for Private Projects. Researching mining projects and projects through-out the African continent are my areas of research and I find them most interesting.

Leads 2 Business Weekly Quote

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This week’s quote is from Elon Musk a business magnate, industrial designer, engineer, and philanthropist. Founder, CEO, CTO and chief designer of SpaceX; early investor, CEO and product architect of Tesla, Inc.; founder of The Boring Company; co-founder of Neuralink; and co-founder and initial co-chairman of OpenAI.


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About Sasha Anderson

Millennial Mom + wife living the hash-tag life

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