What are Desalination Plants and How do they work?

When researching this topic, it seemed to be traditional to quote from “The Rime of the Ancient Mariner” written by poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge in 1797 – 98. Ahem…

“Water, water, everywhere,
And all the boards did shrink;
Water, water, everywhere,
Nor any drop to drink. “

Basically, a bunch of sailors are surrounded by water, but can’t drink it. Because it’s seawater. And they’ll die. But they’re dying of thirst. You can see the conundrum.

Why can’t you drink seawater?

“Seawater contains salt. When humans drink seawater, their cells are thus taking in water and salt. While humans can safely ingest small amounts of salt, the salt content in seawater is much higher than what can be processed by the human body. Additionally, when we consume salt as part of our daily diets, we also drink liquids, which help to dilute the salt and keep it at a healthy level. Living cells do depend on sodium chloride (salt) to maintain the body’s chemical balances and reactions; however, too much sodium can be deadly.

Human kidneys can only make urine that is less salty than saltwater. Therefore, to get rid of all the excess salt taken in by drinking seawater, you have to urinate more water than you drank. Eventually, you die of dehydration even as you become thirstier.”

The earth’s surface is approximately 71% water, which mostly we can’t drink. Approximately 97% of the total amount of water available to us is seawater and 3% is freshwater, most of which is frozen in glaciers and the like. Now throw in pollution and how most of the freshwater goes towards industries, like agriculture; things start looking a bit parched. A bit dry. A bit arid.

With stats like that, desalination is looking pretty good as an option to increase the access to drinkable, usable water.

And with South Africa’s recent and, in fact, ongoing drought/s throughout the country, paying attention to our water (where it comes from and where it goes, and how we can access more); is extremely relevant.

Desalination is the removal of mineral components from a substance. So you can have soil desalination as well as water deslination. Saltwater is desalinated to make water fit for human consumption or irrigation.

The interest in desalination is mostly geared towards the production of water for human use, and besides recycled wastewater, it is one of the few rainfall independent water sources.

The desalination process is an energy consumer though when compared to the relative ease with which water is sourced from rivers, groundwater, water recycling or water conservation. But this depletion of natural reserves or the complete lack of access is its own problem. Desalination processes are either driven by thermal (distillation) or electrical (photovoltaic or wind power), as the primary energy sources.

Approximately 1% of the world’s population is dependent on desalinated water for their daily needs.

Methods

There are many many methods of desalination, which I was surprised by. Each has advantages and disadvantages but all are useful. The methods can be divided into membrane-based (e.g., reverse osmosis) and thermal-based (e.g., multistage flash distillation) methods. The traditional process of desalination is distillation, i.e. boiling and re-condensation of seawater to leave salt and impurities behind.

Reverse osmosis plant membrane systems typically use less energy than thermal desalination processes.

Solar distillation:

Solar distillation mimics the natural water cycle, in which the sun heats the seawater enough for evaporation to occur. After evaporation, the water vapour is condensed onto a cool surface. There are two types of solar desalination. The former one is using photovoltaic cells which converts solar energy to electrical energy to power the desalination process. The latter one utilises the solar energy in the heat form itself and is known as solar thermal powered desalination.

Vacuum distillation:

In vacuum distillation atmospheric pressure is reduced, thus lowering the temperature required to evaporate the water. Liquids boil when the vapour pressure equals the ambient pressure and vapour pressure increases with temperature.

Multi-stage flash distillation:

Water is evaporated and separated from seawater through multi-stage flash distillation, which is a series of flash evaporations.

Multiple-effect distillation:

Multiple-effect distillation (MED) works through a series of steps called “effects”. Incoming water is sprayed onto pipes which are then heated to generate steam. The steam is then used to heat the next batch of incoming seawater. To increase efficiency, the steam used to heat the seawater can be taken from nearby power plants. Although this method is the most thermodynamically efficient among methods powered by heat, a few limitations exist such as a max temperature and max number of effects.

Vapor-compression distillation:

Vapour-compression evaporation involves using either a mechanical compressor or a jet stream to compress the vapour present above the liquid. The compressed vapour is then used to provide the heat needed for the evaporation of the rest of the seawater. Since this system only requires power, it is more cost-effective if kept at a small scale.

Reverse osmosis:

The leading process for desalination in terms of installed capacity and yearly growth is reverse osmosis (RO). The RO membrane processes use semipermeable membranes and applied pressure (on the membrane feed side) to preferentially induce water permeation through the membrane while rejecting salts.

Freeze-thaw:

Freeze-thaw desalination uses freezing to remove freshwater from saltwater.

Electrodialysis membrane:

Electrodialysis utilizes electric potential to move the salts through pairs of charged membranes, which trap salt in alternating channels.

Membrane distillation:

Membrane distillation uses a temperature difference across a membrane to evaporate vapour from a brine solution and condense pure condensate on the colder side.

Wave-powered desalination:

CETA is a wave power technology that desalinates seawater using submerged buoys.

Environmental Impact

The environmental considerations when considering desalination plants (of any size) are very dependent on costs, capacity, type of facility, location, feed water (i.e. seawater, brackish water, groundwater etc), labour, energy, financing and concentrate disposal (i.e. The by-product of desalination is brine. It has to go somewhere.)

So are desalination plants the final solution to our water problems: The upsides are that the methods are effective and well understood. The focus is on preserving natural water supplies, and the ocean is a massive source to draw from, which eliminates any unpredictable factors (i.e. rainfall). In other words, the ocean isn’t going anywhere any time soon. The plants are usually located outside residential areas, and away from the general populace. But for every upside, there are the drawbacks to be considered: Namely, the plants are expensive and the desalination process can be expensive in itself and a huge energy consumer. Greenhouse gas emissions have to be considered, and the disposal of the brine also needs to be worked out to lessen the negative effects on the surrounding environment and there’s always the risk of producing contaminated water.

Desalination plants can vary in size and production capacity, and there’s approximately 10 dotted along the coast of South Africa from the Western Cape through to Kwazulu-Natal. South Africa’s largest seawater desalination plant is in Mossel Bay. It cost R210 million and has a total capacity of 15 megalitres per day (10 megalitres for domestic & other uses; 5 megalitres for industrial).

Desalination can form an important puzzle piece in ensuring that we look after our current water sources, increase supply to those that don’t have access to water as well as work towards ensuring that the environmental factors are mitigated or decreased.

An example of a current Project being researched, please see PPA 21190.

Sources:
Wikipedia Desalination
Wikipedia Water
Veolia Water Technologies
Ocean Service


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Featured Tender: Extensive Maintenance of Erica Drive and Belhar Drive

Featured Tender: Extensive Maintenance of Erica Drive and Belhar Drive

Contract Number:

37Q/2019/20 – City of Cape Town Metropolitan Municipality

Description:

City of Cape Town Metropolitan invites tenders for Extensive Maintenance of Erica Drive and Belhar Drive between Stellenbosch Arterial and Albama Avenue.

Category Industry
Infrastructure Road
Region Site Inspection
Western Cape (021) 2019-09-04 10:00 AM
Closing Date Contract Period
25 September 2019 at 10:00 No Details

 


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Featured Tender: Completion Contract: Masterplan for the conversion of carpenter workshop into offices and face lifting of main building

Featured Tender: Completion Contract: Masterplan for the conversion of carpenter workshop into offices and face lifting of main building

Supply, Install or Replacement of High Voltage and Medium Voltage Equipment in Various Substations

Contract Number:

ZNTU03609W – Department of Public Works

Description:

Bids are invited for: Completion Contract: Masterplan for the conversion of carpenter workshop into offices and face lifting of main building at Department of Public Works, Vryheid

Category Industry
Building Renovations, Institutional
Region Site Inspection
Mtubatuba 2019-03-13 11:00 AM
Closing Date Contract Period
01 April 2019 at 11:00 No details.

 

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About Claire Donaldson

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Fraudulent Tenders: What to look out for

posted in: General 2

Is it too good to be true…

I see all sorts crossing my desk, when it comes to researching and sourcing tender notices. I see not only the various notifications companies and organisations put out alerting the public to the scams out there, but I also get sent quite a few scams myself. This has inadvertently created a new skill set. And that is, inhouse dodgy tender notice identifier.

Fraudulent tenders and scams involving tenders is not new. It tends to take on various incarnations, and, unfortunately, tends to get more inventive as time goes on. There’s a bizarre combination of old tricks and new tricks. So this misuse of imagination keeps everyone on their toes. It takes learning on the job to a new level.

Scams are not limited to any one type of service or product. It can be anything from supplying wheelie bins to building RDP houses. It doesn’t matter what the service or product is, because it’s just used as bait to lure unsuspecting suppliers and contractors to fall for the scam.

Any procurement process is competitive. And companies have to work hard to take advantage of all the opportunities that come their way. Fraudsters tend to prey on this eagerness, and in some cases desperation. They use a company’s naivity to their advantage as well as greed (to be blatantly honest). Heightened emotions, of any kind, put someone at risk of making a risking decision.

Money is the focus for scammers. They are trying to get as much as they can as quickly as they can as often as they can. So a red flag is any tender deposit that is exorbitantly high. A registration fee of any kind, needs to be questioned.

Has a tender notice or request for quotation shown up unannounced? Unsolicited quotations are very common. There are all manner of electronic procurement systems out there allowing buyers to send RFQs to vendors legitimately. But if you do not recognise the format or who the RFQ has come from, always double check. The way to double check, is to not call any numbers listed directly on the quotation. Look up the switchboard numbers of the organisation and call them directly and this will allow you to get confirmation of the legitimacy or the fraudulent nature of the tender notice/ quotation.

These fraudulent quotations/ tenders tend to also ask for very specific goods or products. Usually, where there’s only one company that can supply the item in question. Be wary of these types of quotations, as they channel you in the direction that the scammer wants you to go.

Did you tender for the contract award that has suddenly shown up in your inbox or doorstep? No? Then it’s most likely a scam. You cannot be awarded a tender you did not submit a tender/ quote for.

You will never be asked to pay, before being awarded a tender.

Is the quotation/ tender notice not only on a “official” looking letterhead, but has a watermark and all manner of crests and coats of arms? Trying too hard to look legitimate and official; then give this a wide berth, and call the organisation and check

Is the email address given, some bizarre derivative of an official organisation’s domain name? Then it’s a scam. Government Departments, Municipalities and legitimate private companies do not have various versions of their own domain names. There’s one official domain name and that’s it. This is a dead give away.

Most of these fraudulent tenders/ quotations are variations of exactly the same advert but with varying dates and slightly different cell phone numbers listed. This repetition stands out. Companies are posting warnings of these scams; so a good Google search can quite quickly confirm whether the tender/ quotation is fake or not.

It might be tedious; double checking and notifying the proper companies of these scams out there, but it helps tremendously in shutting these scammers out by spreading the word.

Once bitten, Twice Shy.

 

 

 

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CSD – How, Where, Why to Register

posted in: General 2

CSD – How, Where, Why to Register

CSD stands for Central Supplier Database. It came into effect in April 2016. Basically, if you want to participate do business with the South African Government and its entities, you are required to be registered on the CSD.

Below is from the CSD website:

What is the CSD?

The Central Supplier Database (CSD) is a single database that will serve as the source of all supplier information for organs of state. The supplier information will be verified with institutions such as the South African Revenue Service, Companies and Intellectual Property Commission, Department of Home Affairs etc. All suppliers will be required to complete the required information on the CSD website and must ensure it is complete, accurate and comprehensive.

What do I need to register on the CSD?

Depending on the supplier type, the following would be amongst the required information:

  • A valid cell-phone number to receive a One Time Pin (OTP);
  • A valid email account;
  • Supplier identification information e.g. identification number or company registration number or trust number, etc.;
  • Industry classification information;
  • Supplier contact information e.g. preferred contact name, email address, cell-phone number, telephone number etc.;(Note: Please ensure that you provide all relevant numbers where available i.e. telephone number (landline), cell-phone number, fax number, toll-free number, website address. This is to enable the Organ of State practitioners to reach you when intending to contact you for procurement purposes) ;
  • Supplier address information e.g. country, province, municipality, city, suburb, ward, and postal code;
  • Bank account information if relevant to ensure future payments; (Note: It is critical to refer to the banking FAQ on the OCPO website prior to capturing your bank information. Verification against the banks may take up to four (4) days, please complete this information in advance to prevent payment delays);
  • Supplier tax information if relevant;
  • Directors/Members information, e.g. name and identification number of directors, members etc.;
  • Commodities the supplier can provide; (Note: commodities need to be captured accurately as they are used by the Organ of State practitioners to search goods and services required by them. The delivery locations of commodities must be accurate to prevent you from not responding to request for quotations sent from practitioners in areas where you do not supply commodities); and
  • Accreditations the supplier is associated with e.g. CIDB, SETA, SANAS etc. if relevant.

How do I register on the CSD?

You are required to follow a two-stage, self-registration process:

How do I know I am successfully registered?

The registration is complete once the supplier information is assigned a Supplier number and a 36-digit Unique Registration Reference Number.

How do I obtain a registration report?

  • Click on Report, followed by Registration;
  • Enter your Supplier number and the Unique Registration Reference Number;
  • Click View Report.

I sent a list of questions through to the CSD on 10 December 2018, in a bid to not only get some answers to questions but also to see how responsive they were to my queries. You are able to contact the CSD directly through their website, by using their Provide Feedback option. I have corresponded with them previously, and haven’t had any complaints about their response time, and with this little test; I was impressed. They responded a couple of hours after I emailed them. Below are the questions I sent and the answers, I received:

Q. How long, on average, does it take from beginning to registered?

A. It takes about 20 minutes to register a supplier. The bank takes up to four business days to verify after registering.

Q. Which form of communication is encouraged by the CSD? Through the website, telephone or the Walk-In Centres?

A: All those forms of communication are encouraged, it depends which one you prefer.

Q. What info is required should a supplier use a Walk-In Centre?

A. To register in the walking center one should bring their ID, tax clearance, banking details (business account), CK (depends what type of business it is).

Q. Is there any company/ supplier that doesn’t have to be registered on the CSD?

A. Everyone that wishes to conduct business with the government needs to register on CSD.

Q. Does a supplier’s registration lapse?

A. As long as you pay your CIPC annual fee, you will not be de-registered.

Q. How does a supplier de-activate their registration, i.e. remove themselves from the CSD?

A. One can deactivate or delete their profile at any point. When deleted, the supplier number cannot be retrieved back.

Q. How many companies can be registered per profile?

A. You can register up to five (5) companies under your profile.

Q. Is the CSD involved in payment being made to suppliers for services rendered?

A. The department that awarded the tender will be responsible for payment for services rendered.

Contacting the CSD:

The website address is https://secure.csd.gov.za/

There are various ways to contact the CSD, the main being National support: csd@treasury.gov.za

012 406 9222

The direct link for all the Provincial options is https://secure.csd.gov.za/Feedback/ProvincialContacts

There are seven Provincial Walk-In Centres:

Walk-In Centres

National Treasury

National Treasury

240 Madiba Street, City of Tshwane, Pretoria, Gauteng

Free State

Free State Provincial Treasury

Fidel Castro Building, 55 Elizabeth Street, Mangaung, Bloemfontein,

Free State

Eastern Cape

Eastern Cape Provincial Treasury

Tyamzashe Building, Phalo Avenue, Bhisho, Buffalo City, Eastern Cape

Western Cape

City of Cape Town

12 Hertzog Boulevard, 2nd Floor Civic Centre Building, Cape Town,

Western Cape

Limpopo

Limpopo Provincial Treasury

56 Paul Kruger Street, Capricorn, Polokwane, Limpopo

Mpumalanga

Mpumalanga Provincial Government

Building No 4, Lower Ground Floor, 7 Government Boulevard, Ehlanzeni, Mbombela, Nelspruit,

Mpumalanga

Kwa-Zulu Natal

Kwa-Zulu Natal Provincial Treasury

Treasury House, 145 Chief Albert Luthuli Road, Msunduzi, uMgungundlovu, Pietermaritzburg, Kwazulu-Natal

Sources:
http://ocpo.treasury.gov.za/Resource_Centre/CSD/Supplier%20Leaflet.pdf
https://secure.csd.gov.za/
http://ocpo.treasury.gov.za/Resource_Centre/CSD/CSD%20User%20Guide%20Master.pdf

 

 

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I started working at Leads 2 Business in February 2005, and have served as Head of Department of Daily Tenders from 2007 until the present. I oversee both the Daily Tenders South Africa and Africa Departments.

Featured Tender: Construction of Administration Block, Assembly Area and Bulk Earthworks at Taung Hotel School

Construction of Administration Block, Assembly Area and Bulk Earthworks at Taung Hotel School

Taung Hotel School

Contract Number:

DOT01NWER009 – IDT

Description:

Construction of Administration Block, Assembly Area and Bulk Earthworks at Taung Hotel School (Dr Ruth Segomotsi Mompati

Category Industry
Building
Infrastructure
Renovations
Institutional
Hospitality & Leisure
Region Site Inspection
North West 2018-11-16 12:30 PM
Closing Date Contract Period
03 December 2018 No Details

 

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About Claire Donaldson

I started working at Leads 2 Business in February 2005, and have served as Head of Department of Daily Tenders from 2007 until the present. I oversee both the Daily Tenders South Africa and Africa Departments.

Featured Tender: Mawa Block 12 Low Level Bridge

Mawa Block 12 Low Level Bridge

Mawa Block 12 Low Level Bridge

Contract Number:

SCMU30/2018 – Greater Tzaneen Local Municipality

Description:

Greater Tzaneen Local Municipality invites tenders for Mawa Block 12 Low Level Bridge.

Category Industry
Infrastructure Road
Region Site Inspection
Limpopo 2018-11-07 10:00 AM
Closing Date Contract Period
21 November 2018 at 12:00 No Details

 

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I started working at Leads 2 Business in February 2005, and have served as Head of Department of Daily Tenders from 2007 until the present. I oversee both the Daily Tenders South Africa and Africa Departments.

Featured Tender: Contractors for Maintenance on the Electrical Network

Contractors for Maintenance on the Electrical Networkof meter reading services company

meter reading

Contract Number:

11/2019/19N19/2019 – Emfuleni Local Municipality

Description:

Emfuleni Local Municipality invites tenders for Appointment of Contractors for Maintenance on the Electrical Network on as and when required basis for a Period of Thirty Six (36) Months.

Category Industry
Electrical & Instrument Power Grid
Region Site Inspection
Gauteng 2018-10-17 10:00 AM
Closing Date Contract Period
30 October 2018 at 10:00 Thirty Six (36) Months

 

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About Claire Donaldson

I started working at Leads 2 Business in February 2005, and have served as Head of Department of Daily Tenders from 2007 until the present. I oversee both the Daily Tenders South Africa and Africa Departments.

Featured Tender: Construction of Fairyland Sport Facility, Groenheuwel Urban Park

Drakenstein Local Municipality invites tenders for Construction of Fairyland Sport Facility, Groenheuwel Urban Park.

Fairyland Sport Facility

Contract Number:

COMP7/2018 – Drakenstein Local Municipality

Description:

Drakenstein Local Municipality invites tenders for Construction of Fairyland Sport Facility, Groenheuwel Urban Park.

 

Category Industries
 

Infrastructure
Building

 

Hospitality & Leisure
Renovations
Institutional
Region Site Inspection
Western Cape 2018-07-06 10:00 AM
Closing Date Restrictions
30 July 2018 at 10:00 It is estimated that tenderers should have a cidb contractor grading of 6CE. Only tenderers who Tenderers must be registered with the CIDB in a CE class of construction works and have a grading designation equal to or higher than that determined in accordance with the sum tendered or a value determined in accordance with regulation 25(7A) of the Construction Industry Development Regulations, 2004. It is estimated that tenderers will need a grading designation of 6CE or higher. are eligible to submit tenders. Telephonic, Telegraphic, Telex, Facsimile, Emailed and Late Tenders will not be accepted. Tenders may only be submitted on the tender documentation that is issued. Requirements for sealing, addressing, delivering, opening and assessment of Tenders are stated in the Tender Data

 

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About Claire Donaldson

I started working at Leads 2 Business in February 2005, and have served as Head of Department of Daily Tenders from 2007 until the present. I oversee both the Daily Tenders South Africa and Africa Departments.

Featured Tender: Appointment of Suitably Qualified Engineering Consultants and Related Service Providers to Moretele Local Municipality – Rural Sanitation

Appointment of Suitably Qualified Engineering Consultants and Related Service Providers to Moretele Local Municipality – Rural Sanitation

Moretele Local Municipality

Contract Number:

MLM/S/PSP-PAN/2018/2021 – Moretele Local Municipality

Description:

Moretele Local Municipality hereby invited prospective bidders for the following: Appointment of Suitably Qualified Engineering Consultants and Related Service Providers to Moretele Local Municipality – Rural Sanitation.

 

Category Industries
Consultants Institutional

 

Region Site Inspection
North West 2018-06-26 09:00 AM
Closing Date Restrictions
19 July 2018 at 12:00 Evaluation Criteria: 80/20 Price and BBB-EE status level and a minimum of Functionality score of 70%. Sealed documents marked as per above reference and description, must be submitted before the closing date and time. No late bids will be accepted. Moretele Local Municipality does not bind itself in accepting the lowest or any bid and Municipality reserves the right to accept a whole or part of any bid and further reserves a right to re-advertise if it wishes to. All bids will be evaluated in accordance with the Supply Chain Management Policy of Moretele Local Municipality, the Preferential Procurement Policy Framework Act, (Act. No 5 of 2000) and the Preferential Procurement Regulations 2011, as well as Broad Based Black Economic Empowerment Act (Act 53 of 2003). Bids will remain valid for 90 days.

 

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About Claire Donaldson

I started working at Leads 2 Business in February 2005, and have served as Head of Department of Daily Tenders from 2007 until the present. I oversee both the Daily Tenders South Africa and Africa Departments.

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