What happens when Your Computer connects to the Internet?

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What happens Your Computer connects to the Internet?

Your PC needs to be connected to an AP via WIFI, CAT, or UTP cable to the WLAN or LAN.

DHCP will assign an IP to the PC using the MAC of the NIC which allows access to the LAN and, using NAT via the CGI, to the WAN.

TCP or UDP are core protocols of the Internet protocol suite. However, UDP does not provide the reliability and ordering guarantees that TCP does

For IP resolution; WWW, VPN, MX, AAAA, FTP, and HTTP/S also require a TXT entry in the DNS which is a requirement of the IETF and ISOC.

This is referred to as a DNS-SD unless a No TXT record has been specified then it is known as an NXDOMAIN.

Connecting to the WWW the DNS will resolve the IP using a TXT looking for an A record using HTTP or SSL enabled HTTPS.

When searching the WWW the website with the best SEO will display at the top of the SERP.

A website may be HTML or PHP or a standard WP, which may use JS, CSS, or JSON. Some even display CCTV.

A SQL or MySQL server will store the data usually hosted on a DMZ.

What happens when I send an email?

When you send an email, which may contain ASCII, DNS checks the NS and resolves using the MX record which looks for a PTR and will validate using SSL and TLS

which both require a valid DKIM in order for the DMARC to verify. Once verified, SMTP, POP, APOP, or IMAP protocols will retrieve or send your email where they are stored in a PST file on your local PC.

What happens when I make an internet telephone call?

This type of call is known as VOIP.

VOIP requires DNS SRV which specifies a unique host and port when signaling SIP or IAX protocols. The SRV record is named in the PTR.

This is important when using NAT from within a corporate LAN which forwards to the WAN using a public IP. QoS along with either a G729,

uLAW or aLaw codec is used to avoid JITTER. Remote extensions should connect using PPTP over VPN.

 

Essential IT Acronyms

AP – Access Point

CAT – Computer-aided translation

UTP – Unshielded Twisted Pair

MAC – Media Access Control

NAT – Network Address Translation

CGI – Computer-generated Imagery

UDP – User Datagram Protocol

AAAA – Authentication, Authorization, Accounting, and Address (Internet infrastructure)

IETF – Internet Engineering Task Force

ISOC – Information Security Operations Center

DNS-SD – DNS-Based Service Discovery

NXDOMAIN – Non-Existent Domain

DMZ – Demilitarized Zone

PTR – Public Test Realm

SRV – Service Record

AWS – Amazon Web Services

GCP – Google Cloud Platform

IG – Internet Gateway

SEO – Search Engine Optimization

SCM – Search Content Marketing

SEM – Search Engine Marketing

WP – WordPress

PPC – Pay Per Click

CPC – Cost Per Click

SERP – Search Engine Results Page

CTS – Click-Through Rate

CR – Conversion Rate

CPM – Cost Per Thousand Impressions

SVG – Scalable Vector Graphics

DMCA – Digital Millennium Copyright Act

CMS – Content Management System

CRO – Conversion Rate Optimization

CTA – Call to Action

CTR – Click Through Rate

PR – PageRank

ROI – Return on Investment

UI/UX – User Interface/User Experience

SEA – Search Engine Advertising

SMO – Social Media Optimization

SMM – Social Media Marketing

SERM – Search Engine Reputation Management

AMA – Ask Me Anything

B2B – Business to Business

B2C – Business to Consumer

CX – Customer Experience

GA – Google Analytics

SMP – Social Media Platform

ToS – Terms of Service

UA – Universal Analytics

CPL – Cost Per Lead

NPS – Net Promoter Score

QDD – Query Deserves Diversity

QDF – Query Deserves Freshness

HITS – Hyperlink-Induced Topic Search

LSI – Latent Semantic Indexing

PBN – Private Blog Network

AI – Artificial Intelligence

IMS – Intelligent Maintenance Systems

ML – Machine Learning

NI – Natural Intelligence

MI – Machine Intelligence

SR – Speech Recognition

M2M – Machine to Machine

SQL – Structured Query Language

DQL – Data Query Language

DDL – Data Definition Language

DML – Data Manipulation Language

PHP – Hypertext Preprocessor

HTML – Hypertext Markup Language

JS – JavaScript

CSS – Cascading Style Sheets

API – Application Programming Interface

XML – Extensible Markup Language

XHTML – Extensible Hypertext Markup Language

JSON – JavaScript Object Notation

EOF – End Of File

ASCII – American Standard Code for Information Interchange

I/0 – Input & Output

IPSec – Internet Protocol Security

SSE – Server-Side Encryption

SSL – Secure Socket Layer

WAF – Web Application Firewall

DMARC – Domain-based Message Authentication Reporting and Conformance

OSS – Open Source Software

SSD – Solid-state Drive

RAM – Random-access Memory

SLA – Service Level Agreement

OLA – Operational-level Agreement

SSO – Single Sign-On

UPS – Uninterruptible Power Supply

DC – Data Center

GUI – Graphical User Interface

BI – Business Intelligence

IT – Information Technology

DW – Data Warehouse

DNS – Domain Name System

HTTP – HyperText Transport Protocol

HTTPS – HyperText Transport Protocol Secure

LAN – Local Area Network

WAN – Wide Area Network

DHCP – Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol

TCP – Transmission Control Protocol

IP – Internet Protocol

WWW – World Wide Web

IoT – Internet Of Things

D2D – Device to Device

VPN – Virtual Private Network

BGP – Border Gateway Protocol

VLAN – Virtual Local Area Network

ICMP – Internet Control Message Protocol

LB – Load Balancer

SMTP – Simple Mail Transfer Protocol

FTP – File Transfer Protocol

RDP – Remote Desktop Protocol

NIC – Network Interface Card

ISP – Internet Service Provider

URL – Uniform Resource Locator

PDF – Portable Document Format

IE – Internet Explorer

DM – Direct Message

FB – Facebook

PM – Private Message

QoS – Quality of Service

MIME – Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions

POP – Post Office Protocol

IMAP – Internet Message Access Protocol

MX – Mail Exchange

PPTP – Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol

WPAN – Wireless Personal Area Network

WLAN – Wireless Local Area Network


To view more Articles, please visit our Leads 2 Business Blog.
If you are interested in becoming one of our subscribers, please visit Leads 2 Business.
To view notes with screenshots on how to use our website, please visit Leads 2 Business Wiki.

About Mark Meyer

I joined Leads 2 Business in February 2009 and serve as IT Director.

Staff Spotlight: Mark Meyer

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MM STAFF SPOTLIGHT - doc

To view more Articles, please visit our Leads 2 Business Blog.
If you are interested in becoming one of our subscribers, please visit Leads 2 Business.
To view notes with screenshots on how to use our website, please visit Leads 2 Business Wiki.

About Mark Meyer

I joined Leads 2 Business in February 2009 and serve as IT Director.

2020 – A Year in Review

posted in: General 0

2020 has been full of crazy experiences: panic buying, social distancing, hard lock-downs, hotel quarantines, hand washing and sanitising, elbow-bump greetings and Skype weddings.

This year is, for many people, the worst year of their lives. This is because the Covid-19 pandemic is not just happening in some distant part of the world, it is here and has to some degree personally affected everyone.

Most of us will be all too happy to see the back of 2020!

But before blowing the year out of the water, let’s add some perspective and consider the passage below.

It’s a mess out there now. Hard to discern between what’s a real threat and what is just simple panic and hysteria.

For a small amount of perspective at this moment, imagine you were born in 1900. On your 14th birthday, World War I starts and ends on your 18th birthday. 22 million people perish in that war.
Later in the year, a Spanish Flu epidemic hits the planet and runs until your 20th birthday. 50 million people die from it in those two years. Yes, 50 million. On your 29th birthday, the Great Depression begins. Unemployment hits 25%, the World GDP drops 27%. That runs until you are 33. The country nearly collapses along with the world economy. When you turn 39, World War II starts. You aren’t even over the hill yet. And don’t try to catch your breath. On your 41st birthday, the United States is fully pulled into WWII. Between your 39th and 45th birthday, 75 million people perish in the war. At 50, the Korean War starts. 5 million perish. At 55 the Vietnam War begins and doesn’t end for 20 years. 4 million people perish in that conflict.
On your 62nd birthday, you have the Cuban Missile Crisis, a tipping point in the Cold War. Life on our planet, as we know it, should have ended. Great leaders prevented that from happening.
When you turn 75, the Vietnam War finally ends. Think of everyone on the planet born in 1900.

How do you survive all of that? When you were a kid in 1985 and didn’t think your 85-year-old grandparent understood how hard school was and how mean that kid in your class was. Yet they survived through everything listed above.

Perspective is an amazing art. Refined as time goes on, and enlightening like you wouldn’t believe.
Let’s try and keep things in perspective. Let’s be smart, help each other out.


To view more Articles, please visit our Leads 2 Business Blog.
If you are interested in becoming one of our subscribers, please visit Leads 2 Business.
To view notes with screenshots on how to use our website, please visit Leads 2 Business Wiki.

About Mark Meyer

I joined Leads 2 Business in February 2009 and serve as IT Director.

Best Security Systems for an Office Building

posted in: Safety 0

Best Security Systems for an Office Building

When choosing the right type of security system for your business you need to, make an informed decision and, know as much as possible about the various security systems available. Here is a list of the most important types of commercial security systems in the market:

FIRE ALARM SYSTEMS

Fire alarms won’t detect intruders but they do prevent you from losing assets that could be costly to replace if a fire were to occur. You would also be protecting the lives of your employees if a fire were to break out during business hours. SANS 10400: Part T – Fire Protection states that in the event of a fire:

The occupants or people using the building will be protected – including persons with disabilities;
The spread and intensity of any fire within buildings, and the spread of fire to any other buildings will be minimized;
The generation and spread of smoke will be minimized or controlled to the greatest extent reasonably practicable; and
Adequate means of access, and equipment for detecting, fighting, controlling and extinguishing such fire, is provided.

ACCESS CONTROL SYSTEMS

Controlling who has access to specific areas of the building is a way you can keep track of any indiscretions. Access control systems have the ability to collect data that states the time a person has accessed the building. Also, anyone who isn’t granted access will not have a way of entering the premises. This may be achieved by using a biometric access control unit where validation based on biometric qualities like iris and facial recognition, and fingerprint scans.

WIRELESS ALARM SYSTEMS

The advantage of a wireless alarm system is that it can go undetected as there are no visible wires. Intruders won’t be able to cut wires to disable the alarm system, and they will never know that they are being watched. Wireless systems are more likely to include solar and battery to stay on without the need for electricity in case of a power failure. Wireless sensors are easy to install, move and expand.

VIDEO SURVEILLANCE SYSTEMS

Video surveillance systems protect the inside and outside of your business. This can be very helpful because you can capture video of the intruder before they step foot into your business. If the intruder manages to come in and take something, presenting this type of video footage will be very helpful to the police when creating a report. Your video surveillance system should offer:

Easy access from anywhere
Safe storage – cloud storage/offsite
Flexibility to grow as your company expands

MONITORED SECURITY ALARM SYSTEMS

We’re living in the digital age, so everything, including your security alarm system, can be accessible to you through your cell phone. 24/7 monitoring stations call the phone number you provide to the alarm company when the alarm goes off and you’ll get an alert through the app too. A panic button will send an instant signal to the monitoring station whereby emergency help will be dispatched. Worth noting is that most insurance companies offer substantial savings to clients who have monitored systems, which may negate the cost of annual monitoring. Your security company should offer the following:

Investigations
Technical Assistance
Premises Monitoring
Armed Response and Escorting
Guarding and Security Consulting

IP-BASED SECURITY CAMERAS

Internet protocol cameras, or IP cameras, enable you to send and receive video footage through the internet and computer network. Improved ability for remote viewing and control, anyone on the network can potentially see video from any camera connected to the network. It is recommended that you use a camera with night vision capabilities. These cameras use an infrared spectrum of light at night and can view and record objects in the dark. Other advantages of this type of surveillance system are:

They record at a higher resolution. This means zooming in won’t create a blurry image.
They include motion detection and record any tampering with the camera.
You can use Power over Ethernet (PoE) to provide power to the cameras.
IP cameras are able to cover a better field of view.

All business sectors are affected in a range of ways by different types of crime. While it’s near impossible to eradicate theft entirely a comprehensive security solution is an effective way to minimise the impact.


If you are interested in becoming one of our subscribers, please visit Leads 2 Business.
To view notes with screenshots on how to use our website, please visit Leads 2 Business Wiki.
To view more Events, please visit our Leads 2 Business Blog.

 

About Mark Meyer

I joined Leads 2 Business in February 2009 and serve as IT Director.

Did you Know #DYK: How much time is needed when pricing?

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Pricing Online

All’s well that ends well. While I believe this to be true, I also believe there is another equally important truth – all’s well that begins well. Especially so in the Construction Industry.

An Industry that commands the unforeseen be seen today.

An industry where the smallest miscalculation will lead to errors of massive proportions.

An industry whose success depends as much on the right planning as on the right execution.

Leads 2 Business understands how crucial accurate, timeous pricing is, and believe that ‘nothing is more expensive than a missed opportunity’

 

Request for Quotes

Submitting accurate pricing is critical in any type of construction business.

Estimate too high and you win fewer jobs; too low and your profits disappear.

So, it’s important to get it right every time!

How do you submit a Request for Quote (RFQ) as accurately and as timeous as possible?

 

Let’s explore two possible scenarios:

 

Scenario 1

On receiving a Request for Quote (RFQ) you attempt to print it out, but….. there’s no paper in the printer, mumbling to yourself you open a new ream of paper, slam it into the printer tray and attempt to print again.

You got this, just breathe.

Okay, it’s printing!

Now that you have your freshly printed RFQ on your desk you start typing away on your calculator: add the three, carry the one divide by four, or was it add the one carry the four and divide by three???

This is getting stressful….

A few checks on Google along with a splash of Tip-ex here and there and BOOM you finally have yourself a complete handwritten RFQ! Not bad for a couple of hours work!!

After double checking all is correct (fingers crossed), and feeling rather satisfied with yourself, you bundle the lot up and caress it down the throat of the office fax machine, only to find out that the fax jammed, your document is in tatters and you are seeing red.

Following a few choice words with the poor new IT guy, you calmly place your head in your hands and walk back to your desk to start the tedious process again….

Estimating by hand is time-consuming, frustrating and is detrimental to the well being of the poor new IT guy.

 

Online pricing beats faxing

It’s time to bin the fax machine

 

Scenario 2

You respond by pricing online using the Leads 2 Business website.

Online? Tell me how!

By registering to the Open Quotes service offered by Leads 2 Business you can price online, edit your Profile settings which include your Trades and Serviceable Regions and send your prices to Buyers without waiting for them to ask you for a price first.

Pricing online will not only ensure you rank higher than your competitors it will also:

Save You Time with easy options to download, decline and archive RFQ’s, as well as the ability to send your prices to multiple buyers at once.

Centralised Storage & No More Paper means you can now have a detailed record of all RFQ’s received, priced, declined and archived, kept safely online.

Drawings are easily accessible and available to download.

 

Open Quotes provides you with the ability to:

• Pro-actively respond to RFQ’s using Bill Extracts
• View and price other jobs that match your company trade
• Forward your pricing requests to your company
• Stay current with recent Award notifications

You will be notified when a contract has been awarded, giving you the edge over your competitors.

You will be provided with the following information:
• Awarded Contractor
• Contact information
• Contract Value
• Site occupation

As a new Open Quotes subscriber, you will have a premier listing of the New Vendors showcase for a 30 day period, allowing Buyers to view your business offerings.

You will be able to see which Buyers prefer you and interact directly with them regarding your service and product offerings.

So how much time is needed to price? When using Open Quotes from Leads 2 Business, not much time at all!

But don’t take my word for it Click Here and find out for yourself.

 

Sources:

Kicking

Printer on Fire

 

About Mark Meyer

I joined Leads 2 Business in February 2009 and serve as IT Director.