What happens when Your Computer connects to the Internet?

posted in: General 0

What happens Your Computer connects to the Internet?

Your PC needs to be connected to an AP via WIFI, CAT, or UTP cable to the WLAN or LAN.

DHCP will assign an IP to the PC using the MAC of the NIC which allows access to the LAN and, using NAT via the CGI, to the WAN.

TCP or UDP are core protocols of the Internet protocol suite. However, UDP does not provide the reliability and ordering guarantees that TCP does

For IP resolution; WWW, VPN, MX, AAAA, FTP, and HTTP/S also require a TXT entry in the DNS which is a requirement of the IETF and ISOC.

This is referred to as a DNS-SD unless a No TXT record has been specified then it is known as an NXDOMAIN.

Connecting to the WWW the DNS will resolve the IP using a TXT looking for an A record using HTTP or SSL enabled HTTPS.

When searching the WWW the website with the best SEO will display at the top of the SERP.

A website may be HTML or PHP or a standard WP, which may use JS, CSS, or JSON. Some even display CCTV.

A SQL or MySQL server will store the data usually hosted on a DMZ.

What happens when I send an email?

When you send an email, which may contain ASCII, DNS checks the NS and resolves using the MX record which looks for a PTR and will validate using SSL and TLS

which both require a valid DKIM in order for the DMARC to verify. Once verified, SMTP, POP, APOP, or IMAP protocols will retrieve or send your email where they are stored in a PST file on your local PC.

What happens when I make an internet telephone call?

This type of call is known as VOIP.

VOIP requires DNS SRV which specifies a unique host and port when signaling SIP or IAX protocols. The SRV record is named in the PTR.

This is important when using NAT from within a corporate LAN which forwards to the WAN using a public IP. QoS along with either a G729,

uLAW or aLaw codec is used to avoid JITTER. Remote extensions should connect using PPTP over VPN.


Essential IT Acronyms

AP – Access Point

CAT – Computer-aided translation

UTP – Unshielded Twisted Pair

MAC – Media Access Control

NAT – Network Address Translation

CGI – Computer-generated Imagery

UDP – User Datagram Protocol

AAAA – Authentication, Authorization, Accounting, and Address (Internet infrastructure)

IETF – Internet Engineering Task Force

ISOC – Information Security Operations Center

DNS-SD – DNS-Based Service Discovery

NXDOMAIN – Non-Existent Domain

DMZ – Demilitarized Zone

PTR – Public Test Realm

SRV – Service Record

AWS – Amazon Web Services

GCP – Google Cloud Platform

IG – Internet Gateway

SEO – Search Engine Optimization

SCM – Search Content Marketing

SEM – Search Engine Marketing

WP – WordPress

PPC – Pay Per Click

CPC – Cost Per Click

SERP – Search Engine Results Page

CTS – Click-Through Rate

CR – Conversion Rate

CPM – Cost Per Thousand Impressions

SVG – Scalable Vector Graphics

DMCA – Digital Millennium Copyright Act

CMS – Content Management System

CRO – Conversion Rate Optimization

CTA – Call to Action

CTR – Click Through Rate

PR – PageRank

ROI – Return on Investment

UI/UX – User Interface/User Experience

SEA – Search Engine Advertising

SMO – Social Media Optimization

SMM – Social Media Marketing

SERM – Search Engine Reputation Management

AMA – Ask Me Anything

B2B – Business to Business

B2C – Business to Consumer

CX – Customer Experience

GA – Google Analytics

SMP – Social Media Platform

ToS – Terms of Service

UA – Universal Analytics

CPL – Cost Per Lead

NPS – Net Promoter Score

QDD – Query Deserves Diversity

QDF – Query Deserves Freshness

HITS – Hyperlink-Induced Topic Search

LSI – Latent Semantic Indexing

PBN – Private Blog Network

AI – Artificial Intelligence

IMS – Intelligent Maintenance Systems

ML – Machine Learning

NI – Natural Intelligence

MI – Machine Intelligence

SR – Speech Recognition

M2M – Machine to Machine

SQL – Structured Query Language

DQL – Data Query Language

DDL – Data Definition Language

DML – Data Manipulation Language

PHP – Hypertext Preprocessor

HTML – Hypertext Markup Language

JS – JavaScript

CSS – Cascading Style Sheets

API – Application Programming Interface

XML – Extensible Markup Language

XHTML – Extensible Hypertext Markup Language

JSON – JavaScript Object Notation

EOF – End Of File

ASCII – American Standard Code for Information Interchange

I/0 – Input & Output

IPSec – Internet Protocol Security

SSE – Server-Side Encryption

SSL – Secure Socket Layer

WAF – Web Application Firewall

DMARC – Domain-based Message Authentication Reporting and Conformance

OSS – Open Source Software

SSD – Solid-state Drive

RAM – Random-access Memory

SLA – Service Level Agreement

OLA – Operational-level Agreement

SSO – Single Sign-On

UPS – Uninterruptible Power Supply

DC – Data Center

GUI – Graphical User Interface

BI – Business Intelligence

IT – Information Technology

DW – Data Warehouse

DNS – Domain Name System

HTTP – HyperText Transport Protocol

HTTPS – HyperText Transport Protocol Secure

LAN – Local Area Network

WAN – Wide Area Network

DHCP – Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol

TCP – Transmission Control Protocol

IP – Internet Protocol

WWW – World Wide Web

IoT – Internet Of Things

D2D – Device to Device

VPN – Virtual Private Network

BGP – Border Gateway Protocol

VLAN – Virtual Local Area Network

ICMP – Internet Control Message Protocol

LB – Load Balancer

SMTP – Simple Mail Transfer Protocol

FTP – File Transfer Protocol

RDP – Remote Desktop Protocol

NIC – Network Interface Card

ISP – Internet Service Provider

URL – Uniform Resource Locator

PDF – Portable Document Format

IE – Internet Explorer

DM – Direct Message

FB – Facebook

PM – Private Message

QoS – Quality of Service

MIME – Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions

POP – Post Office Protocol

IMAP – Internet Message Access Protocol

MX – Mail Exchange

PPTP – Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol

WPAN – Wireless Personal Area Network

WLAN – Wireless Local Area Network

To view more Articles, please visit our Leads 2 Business Blog.
If you are interested in becoming one of our subscribers, please visit Leads 2 Business.
To view notes with screenshots on how to use our website, please visit Leads 2 Business Wiki.

About Mark Meyer

I joined Leads 2 Business in February 2009 and serve as IT Director.

L2B Terminology & Acronyms

posted in: Did You Know 0

At Leads 2 Business we often use terminology to refer to information specific to our website.


Here are some Acronyms unique to us:

Firstly L2B short for Leads 2 Business, also our domain ie L2B.co.za

PP: Private Projects

PPA: Private Projects Advisory or Private Project Reference

DT: Daily Tenders

SI: Site Inspection

CL: Closing Date

DTA: Daily Tender Advisory or Daily Tender Reference

L2Q: Leads 2 Quotes

OQ: Open Quotes


Some other Acronyms you may come across in the Construction Industry that we often refer to on our website and in communication with subscribers are:

BAR/DBAR/FBAR: Basic Assessment Report / Draft Basic Assessment Report / Final Basic Assessment Report
BBEEE: Broad-Based Black Economic Empowerment
BOQ: Bill of Quantities
BID: Background Information Document
Bid: A formal proposal to deliver goods or services at a specified price, as well, describing that the tender contract requirement will be met
BFS: Bankable Feasibility Study
DFS: Definitive Feasibility Study
CIDB: Construction Industry Development Board
CIPC: Companies and Intellectual Property Commission
CSD: Central Supplier Database
CSR: Corporate Social Responsibility
DFA: Development Facilitation Act
DSR: Draft Scoping Report
EA: Environmental Authorisation
ECO: Environmental Control Officer
EIA: Environmental Impact Assessment
EME: Exempted Micro Enterprises are small entities, with an annual turnover of R10 million or less.
EOI: Expression of Interest is a multi-staged process that is used early in the procurement process.

EPC: Engineering, Procurement & Construction
EPCM: Engineering, Procurement, Construction and Management

EMPr: Environmental Management Programme
EMP: Environmental Management Plan
ESIA: Environmental & Social Impact Assessment
FS: Feasibility Study
FSR: Final Scoping Report
GEN: Generic Enterprises are large entities, with an annual turnover in excess of R50 million
I&AP’s: Interested and Affected Parties
IDP: Integrated Development Plant
JV: Joint Venture is a business entity created by two or more parties with the purpose to achieve a specific task, such as win a tender, PFI, PPP

MBD: Municipal Bidding Document – standardized documents used for tenders
NHBRC: National Home Builders Registration Council – a regulatory body of the home building industry
PFS: Pre-feasibility study
POSEIA: Plan of Study for Environmental Impact Assessment
PPA: Purchase Power Agreement
PPP: Public-private partnership is a contract between a public-sector institution and a private party, where the private party performs a function that is usually provided by the public sector and/or uses state property in terms of the PPP agreement.

PPPFA: Preferential Procurement Policy Framework Act of 2000 and the Preferential Procurement Regulations of 2001 establish the obligation of government to award preferential procurement points to enterprises owned by historically disadvantaged persons, including females
QHSE: SHE/SHEQ – Quality, Health, Safety, Environment
QSE: Qualifying Small Enterprise is one of the categories of South African businesses as per BBEEE with an annual turnover of between R10 million and R50 million
RFT: Request for Tender is a formal, structured invitation to suppliers to submit or bid to supply products or services.
RFP: Request for Proposal is submitted in an early stage in the procurement process and is commonly used when it is required technical expertise, specialized capability, or in some cases where the product or service requested do not already exist and must be developed.
RFQ: Request for Quotation is when Suppliers are invited to provide a quote for the provision of specific goods or services.
RFI: Request for Information is requesting information necessary to decide the procurement process. Hence, RFI typically occurs during a planning phase.
SLA: Service Level Agreement is  An agreement between two or more parties. Where one party is the customer and the other party is a supplier delivering a service.
SMME: small, medium and micro enterprises, also referred to as small business, play an important role in an economy. They can be key drivers of economic growth, innovation and job creation.

Did you find these helpful?
Is there any terminology or acronyms we missed? If so leave a comment below and we will be happy to update our post.

To view more Articles, please visit our Leads 2 Business Blog.
If you are interested in becoming one of our subscribers, please visit Leads 2 Business.
To view notes with screenshots on how to use our website, please visit Leads 2 Business Wiki.

About Sasha Anderson

Millennial Mom + wife living the hash-tag life. Remember: If You Fail - Fail Forward