Did You Know #DYK: Fire Escape Rules in South Africa

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Fire Escape Rules In South Africa

So, after reading many different articles and doing some intense researching regarding fire escape rules in our beautiful country, I have come up with the following and hope it will somehow assist you, should you catch yourself in a heated situation 😉

Just a bit of history…Did you know that one of the very first fire escapes was invented in the 18th century in England? David Maseres invented the machine in 1784 called the “Fire Escape”.

This machine was fastened to a window which allowed a person to descend to the ground, as per the below picture.

 

Abraham Wivell then created an improved design, which included an escape chute.

Furthermore, the “Enclosed Tubular Chute Fire Escape” became accepted in schools, hospitals and other institutions in the 1930s. It was a very easy form of escape as people would literally just slide down it.

And as time went by, it evolved and became more modernised, such as a modern type of evacuation slide which is the vertical spiral escape chute and is commonly used for bigger buildings and structures. Buildings are getting taller and new fire escape techniques are developing. Elevators have been thought of as a possible fire escape for high-rise buildings. Further high-rise fire escape methods include parachutes, external collapsible elevators and slides.

 

Now that we’ve looked at the history and where and when fire escapes came into place, let’s have a look at what it means today.

No one wants to see their house or company go up in flames, therefore there are very strict rules and regulations when it comes to fire safety in South Africa. According to SANS 10400: Part T – the Fire Protection Act says the following: “In order to protect your property and the people in it, South Africa has implemented building regulations to ensure that the buildings are designed, constructed and equipped adequately in the event of a fire”. The Fire Protection Act states the following:

  1. The occupants of the building, including disabled people will be protected;
  2. The spread of fire within the building and to other buildings will be minimised;
  3. Sufficient stability must be insured so there is no major failure of the structural system;
  4. The spread of smoke shall be controlled and minimised; and
  5. Adequate means of access for detecting, fighting, controlling and extinguishing shall be provided.

The SANS Act 10400 Part T can be divided into 4 categories:

  1. Safety Distances;
  2. Fire Resistance: Relating to building material such as structural walls.
  3. Requirements for effective fire protection include:
    • General requirements,
    • Regulations relating to safety distances,
    • Fire performance
    • Fire resistance
    • Fire stability of structural elements or components,
    • Protection of openings,
    • Provision of escape routes,
    • Exit doors,
    • Feeder routes,
  • Emergency routes, dimensions of components of escape routes,
  • The width of escape routes,
  • Basements,
  • Stairways and other changes of level along escape routes,
  • Ventilation of stairways in emergency routes,
  • Pressurization of emergency routes and components,
  • Openings in floors,
  • External stairways and passages,
  • Marking and signposting,
  • Provision of emergency lighting,
  • Fire detection and alarm systems,
  • Provision and maintenance of firefighting equipment,
  • Water reticulation for firefighting purposes,
  • Hose reels,
  • Hydrants,
  • Automatic sprinkler and other fixed extinguishing systems,
  • Portable fire extinguishers,
  • Mobile fire extinguishers,
  • Fire-stopping of inaccessible concealed spaces,
  • Protection of services shafts,
  • Smoke control,
  • Air-conditioning systems and artificial ventilation systems,
  • Lift shafts,
  • Lifts,
  • Firemen’s lift,
  • Stretcher lift,
  • Access for fire-fighting and rescue purposes
  1. Rational Designs: Designing of a structure to ensure the level of safety is sufficient by a qualified person.

 

Now, I think it is very important to have the correct fire safety equipment in your building.

We probably walk pass some of the above items at work every single day and don’t even realise it, but it is vital to know that they are there, where exactly they are and how they are used. It is good to have the necessary equipment to protect the building as well as the people inside it. Therefore, the following equipment will always be helpful:

Alarms – Whether they are heat detectors, smoke alarms or even panic buttons. Heat detectors are generally slower to detect fire than smoke detectors; they are preferably used in smaller spaces where there are higher risks of fire. Smoke alarms are recommended by experts as they detect fires and heat much quicker. Different types of smoke alarms are used such as ionization smoke alarms, which responds to raging fires; photoelectric smoke alarms which respond to a light source; and lastly a combination alarm which is the best recommendation. Ensure that you know where your panic buttons are.

Fire Reels – When outdoors these are generally connected to fire engines or fire hydrants and when inside it is attached the building’s plumbing system.

Fire Extinguishers – Always ensure that you know where these are kept in your workplace as you never know when you might actually have to use one. There are different types of fire extinguishers and the number and type you require would depend on certain circumstances in your building.

Sprinkler Systems – According to Wikipedia, over 40 million sprinkler heads are fitted in buildings each year. Buildings that are completely protected by fire sprinkler systems, over 96% of fire were controlled by fire sprinklers alone. There are different types of sprinklers such as wet pipe systems, dry pipe systems, pre-action, deluge, foam protection, just to name a few.

Fire Exit Signs and Doors – Fire exit signs are a crucial part of an emergency. Proper signage is critical for all fire exits and fire doors. Fire Regulations have stated that fire exits are very clearly marked and should show even when there are power outages.

In the case of an emergency, the last thing you want is for people to run around hysterically. The calmer the people, the calmer the entire situation. Next, let’s have a look at what precautions we can take in the event of a fire:

  • Plan your escape plan. Learn your building’s evacuation plan and ensure that fire drills are done regularly;
  • Ensure that your building’s evacuation routes are displayed;
  • Never lock or block fire exits or doorways, halls or stairways;
  • Know the sound of your building’s fire alarm;
  • Display emergency numbers near telephones;
  • Know where your assembly point is.

 

In conclusion, ensure that you follow all the rules and regulations required by the government and that your fire equipment and systems are regularly tested and serviced. If you ever do find yourself in a heated situation, always be prepared, react immediately, get out of the building and stay out…

Sources:

sans10400.co.za/fire-protection/

www.fireco-sa.com/south-african-building-regulations-fire-protection.html

https://www.westerncape.gov.za/general-publication/fire-safety-workplace

 

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About Bianca Horne

I started working at Leads 2 Business in May 2013 in the Africa Tenders Department. I worked my way to the Leads 2 Quotes Department in September 2016 and have been there ever since.

L2B Blog: Fire Risks

Fire Risks


Since the early dawn of man, the discovery of fire has brought us progress in every way. A discovery that has pushed the human race beyond grunting and digging for roots, catapulting us into the future. It has provided us with warmth, transport, cooked meals and a living environment that is far more convenient and healthy.
Fire brings a risk of injury and/or death. The importance of treating fire with respect and a mental presence is pertinent to everyone’s wellbeing. This article will give you an overview of some of the risks that fire brings.

Fire requires three elements to start; heat, fuel & oxygen. Stupidity might be added as a fourth for a safe measure as this seems to be a common factor. Examples of fire hazards will include but are not limited to: objects generating heat, faulty electrical equipment, overloading of power supply sockets, smoking, human error and negligence as well as meteorological events (lightning).

 

Hoarding is considered to be one of the major contributors towards fire hazards. Hoarding is defined as the persisted collection and accumulation with an inability to relinquish a large number of objects. Hoarding might include variable objects and materials that humans collect and store causing clutter that will be the fuel for any fire. The rule of thumb is that if you haven’t used it for two months then get rid of it. It is not worth getting your mono-brow or ponytail singed by fire as a direct cause of your hoarding.

Whilst the list of materials posing possible fire risks is endless, the common list would include: flammable liquids of all kinds, gas, and fabric etc. It is of value to know the flash point of flammable material that you might utilise and or store on your premises.

The flashpoint of a volatile flammable material is the lowest temperature at which the vapours of the material will ignite when given an ignition source. The flash point is often confused with the autoignition temperature, which is the temperature at which the vapour ignites spontaneously on its own without an ignition source. The fire point is the lowest temperature at which the vapours of the material will continue to burn after being ignited and the ignition source has been removed. The fire point is higher than the flash point because at the flashpoint more vapour may not be produced rapidly enough to sustain combustion. Flammable materials almost always have a Material Safety Data Sheet that will include information in regards to the particular materials flash/ignition point. It is of value to take the time to read and familiarise yourself with this data if you are inclined to handle the material in an environment that could cause it to ignite.

 

 Whilst it is common knowledge as to the danger linked to well-known flammable materials, the risk of fire is hidden in materials that we do not commonly associate with fire. Ordinary cake flour is one of these products. In its original solid form, it has no risk of ignition. However, when converted into a fine dust, the risk of ignition increases exponentially. Other organic materials that fall into this category will include but are not limited to: grain, starch, sugar, powdered milk, cocoa, coffee, and pollen.

Fireball spreads rapidly:
A cloud of flour is ignited:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

So, if waking up from a “Rip Van Winkle” coma with your favourite little dog named “Skippy” imprinted as a vague Bushman drawing on your kitchen wall doesn’t appeal to you, then rather don’t celebrate your perfect ginger-bread man biscuits by applauding yourself with a hand full of flour over your ignited gas stove.

Be aware and educate yourself on all aspects of fire.

Sources:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dust_explosion
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flash_point

Examples of Fire Hazards in the Workplace

 

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About Richard Venter

I joined the property division as the Financial Manager in 2017 and oversee the management and investment aspects of all properties owned.

Featured Tender: Preventative maintenance, servicing and repairs of fire protection equipment and installation of symbolic signs

Contract Number:

PET06/2017 – Department of Public Works

Description:

Tenders are invited for: East London and Queenstown and area: Preventative maintenance, servicing and repairs of fire protection equipment and installation of symbolic signs in state state buildings. Required at: Eastern Cape: Department of Public Works National: Procurment SCM.

Category:

Security & Fire

Industries:

Institutional

Region:

Eastern Cape

Site Inspection:

A compulsory site meeting is required. Bidders to be on site at the start of the meeting and must remain for the entire duration. Late comers will not be allowed in the meeting. 14 March 2018 at 11:00. The meeting will take place at National Department of Public Works, Eben Donges Building, Hancock Street, North End, Port Elizabeth on the 14 March 2018 at 11:00.

Closing Date:

27 March 2018 at 11:00

Restrictions:

The bid will be evaluated in terms of the 80/20 scoring system. CIDB Contractor grading designation of 3 SF or higher. Potentially Emergency Enterprise 2SF PE or higher. Compliance with pre-qualification criteria: Only B-BBEE status levels 1 – 2 or EME’s / QSE’s tenderers are invited. Functionality Criteria: Experience on previous contracts – 30; Reference from clients/consultants – 20; Financial Capacity – 30; Competence key person – 20 Minimum functionality score to qualify for further evaluation: 50. Only tenderers that meet stipulated minimum threshold for local production and content will be considered. All bidders / Contractors / Suppliers who is doing business with the Government must be registered on the Central Supplier Database. Prospective Bidders/Contractors/ Suppliers will be able to self- register on Central Supplier Database Website which is www.csd.gov.za.

 

If you are a valued Tender subscriber, Click here for more information on this Tender.
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